Church Works and Broad Street Works
'Clarendon' Table and Dessert Shape

The 'Clarendon' shape appears to have been introduced by William Ridgway at his Church and Cobden Works partnership, and then passed the moulds to the Broad Street Works. Distinguishing between the products of the two firms is thankfully not too difficult. From pattern 371 all Broad Street numbers have a 3/ prefix. The stoneware bodies were restricted to the Broad Street Works. Where life does get a little difficult is that both factories used the standard earthenware body and were not above running down the road to the other factory when a production run ran short. We can then find pieces with Church Works impressed marks and Broad Street Works patterns, which causes no end of confusion.

 

Church Works and Cobden Works Patterns

William Ridgway, Son, & Co.

"Union"

Pattern 681

Pattern 938

Pattern 965

Pattern 1094

Pattern 1169

Pattern 1311

Pattern 1313

Pattern 1471

 

Broad Street Works Patterns

Ridgway, Morley, Wear, & Co.
Ridgway & Morley

"Arabian"

Pattern 3/571

Pattern 3/776

Pattern 3/799

Pattern 3/844

Pattern 3/958

Pattern 3/1008

Francis Morley & Co.
Morley & Ashworth
G. L. Ashworth & Bros.

Pattern 3/1307

Pattern 3/1321

Pattern 1361

Pattern 3/1733

 

Church Works and Cobden Works Patterns

 

"Union"

For tea wares in this pattern see here.

At first I thought that the subject matter of this print, as usual, bore no relation to the name. I then observed what the two boys at the foot of the central urn were doing. The boy on the right has a loose bundle of sticks and is breaking each one individually across his knee. The boy on the left, however, has a bundle of sticks that are tightly bound together, and therefore cannot be broken. This is a version of what came to be known in English radical circles as 'the parable of the sticks'. Hence a 'union' of many is stronger than each individual alone. The Ridgways were Methodists in religion and Liberals in politics, so the use of this symbol is hardly surprising.

The soup plate is 264mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Union soup plate front

Union soup plate front detail

Unfortunately the print is not sharply defined, so this is the best detail shot I could get. See Pattern 1471 below for a clearer print.

Union soup plate back

Union soup plate marks

The impressed mark reads: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 681

This is the only example I have come across of the 'Clarendon' shape having a moulded border, which has been carefully picked out by the artist in green. The central star is a transfer. It is a very low pattern number, which caused me to wonder if the shape had originally been designed with a moulded border, which was afterwards dropped.

The dessert plate or twiffler is 234mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Pattern 681 dessert plate front

Pattern 681 dessert plate back

Pattern 681 dessert plate marks

The impressed mark reads: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 938

The leaf dessert dish is 273mm long and 203mm wide. Blue coloured earthenware.

Pattern 938 leaf dessert dish front

Pattern 938 leaf dessert dish back

Pattern 938 leaf dessert dish pattern number

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 965

The comport. Earthenware.

Pattern 965 comport top

Pattern 965 comport handle detail

Pattern 965 comport side

The oval dish. Earthenware.

Pattern 965 oval dish top

The leaf dish. Earthenware.

Pattern 965 leaf dish top

Pattern 965 leaf dish marks

The impressed mark reads: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

Photos © William Hufford 2019

 

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Pattern 1094

The dessert plate of twiffler is 230mm in diameter. Earthenware with a slightly greenish glaze.

Pattern 1094 dessert plate front

Pattern 1094 dessert plate back

Pattern 1094 dessert plate marks

The impressed mark reads: "RIDGWAY, SON & Co.".

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 1169

The oval dessert dish is 294mm long and 232mm wide. Earthenware.

Pattern 1169 oval dessert dish front

Pattern 1169 oval dessert dish back

Pattern 1169 oval dessert dish marks

The leaf dessert dish is 277mm long and 206mm wide. Earthenware.

Pattern 1169 leaf dessert dish front

Pattern 1169 leaf dessert dish back

Pattern 1169 leaf dessert dish marks

The dessert plate is 232mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Pattern 1169 dessert plate front

Pattern 1169 dessert plate back

Pattern 1169 dessert plate marks

The impressed marks read: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 1311

The oval dish. Earthenware with a slightly greenish glaze.

Pattern 1311 oval dish front

Pattern 1311 oval dish back

Pattern 1311 oval dish marks

The square dish. Earthenware with a slightly greenish glaze.

Pattern 1311 square dish front

Pattern 1311 square dish back

Pattern 1311 square dish marks

The dessert plate. Earthenware with a slightly greenish glaze.

Pattern 1311 dessert plate front

Pattern 1311 dessert plate marks

The impressed marks read: "W. RIDGWAY, SON, & Co. / HANLEY".
The presence of this mark, rather than the more usual "RIDGWAY, SON & Co." leads me to think this may be a later reissue of the pattern.

Photos © Jayne Ronan 2019

 

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Pattern 1313

The dessert plate is 227mm in diameter. Earthenware with a slightly greenish glaze.

Pattern 1313 dessert plate front

Pattern 1313 dessert plate back

Pattern 1313 dessert plate marks

The impressed mark reads: "RIDGWAY, SON & Co.".

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 1471

The dessert plate is 228mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Pattern 1471 dessert plate front

Pattern 1471 dessert plate front detail

This is the same print detail of the 'parable of the sticks' as in the "Union" print above.

Pattern 1471 dessert plate back

Pattern 1471 dessert plate backstamp

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Broad Street Works Patterns

All entries from the factory pattern description books are reproduced courtesy of The Wedgwood Museum Trust.

 

"Arabian"

The soup plate is 273mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Arabian soup plate front

Arabian soup plate back

Arabian soup plate marks

The impressed mark reads: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

This shows how confusing matters can get when the factories exchanged earthenware blanks. Here you have a blank made at the Church Works being used on a Broad Street Works pattern. Here it is clear what has happened as the printed mark has the initials of the decorating partnership. When, however, the printed mark is anonymous, as is often the case, pieces can easily be misattributed.

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 3/571

The pattern description book reads:
'Table Clarendon B[lue] S[tone]. Printed in P[urple] Brown. Blue on Biscuit. Brown Edge. Same as 570 but Gilt & Scoured.'
The entry for 3/570 confirms the print name as "Chusan" and the colours as 'Red & Blue Japan'.

The dinner plate is 267mm in diameter. Blue Stone body. Some wear on the gilding.

Pattern 3/571 dinner plate front

Pattern 3/571 dinner plate back

Pattern 3/571 dinner plate marks

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 3/776

The pattern description book entry for 3/776 reads:
'Table Clarendon B[lue] S[tone]. Printed in Blue. Blue on Biscuit. Brown Edge. The 669 Pattn printed in Blue throughout, Blued Gilt & Burnishd.'
The entry for 669 indicates a two colour print (blue & brown) but only describes the print and fails to give it a name.

The dessert plate is approximately 9 inches in diameter. Blue stone body.

Pattern 3/776 dessert plate front

Pattern 3/776 dessert plate back

Pattern 3/776 dessert plate marks

The pattern number and tally mark are written in blue under glaze, so must have been done when the plate was blued before glazing. This is most unusual.

Photos © Tommy Cheatham 2019

 

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Pattern 3/799

The pattern description book reads:
'Table Clar[endon] B[lue] Stone. Printed in Blue. nothing on Biscuit. white Edge. Same patt as 3/788 but slighter, not edged.'
Neither entry names the print, which was known as 'Steam' in the factory engraving room.

For other wares with the same print see the 'Steam' print page.

The soup plate is 265mm in diameter. Blue Stone body.

Pattern 3/799 soup plate front

Pattern 3/799 soup plate back

Pattern 3/799 soup plate marks

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 3/844

The pattern description book entry for 3/844 reads:
'Desst Clar EW. Printed in D[ark] Brown. Blue on Biscuit. brown Edge. Same as 773 only Matt Blue ground in place of Sage Base ground.'
The entry for 3/773 reads:
'Clarendon Desst E Ware. Printed in S[tone] Brown. Blue on Biscuit. White Edge. Sage Base Ground D[ark] Blue Gothic Pannels [sic] Gold Sprigs burnishd. Chinese Rails Centre Enamelld various Colors [sic] - gold on leaves.'

The dessert plate or twiffler is 234mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Pattern 3/844 dessert plate front

Pattern 3/844 dessert plate back

Pattern 3/844 dessert plate marks

The impressed mark reads: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

Another example of a Church Works earthenware blank being decorated at the Broad Street Works. In this case the backstamp does not include the partnership initials, so it is necessary to go by the pattern number. The 3/ prefix means that it is a Broad Street Works pattern.

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 3/958

The pattern description book entry for 3/958 reads:
'Table Clar[endon] E[arthen]W[are]. Print Cashmere blue. regular blue on biscuit. brown edge. The 266 patt[er]n in flowing blue, pencil[le]d in blue, ena[me]l[le]d in red & orange.'
The pattern description book entry for 266 reads:
'Table Albion B[lue] S[tone]. Printed in P[urple] Brown. Dk Blue &c on biscuit. Brown Edge. Dragon border outline 2 Vases chinese flower centre. Red green & Blue Japanned not gilt.'

Pattern 266 may be viewed on the 'Albion' shape page.

The plate. Earthenware.

Pattern 3/958 plate front

Pattern 3/958 plate marks

The impressed mark reads: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

Another example of a Church Works earthenware blank being decorated at the Broad Street Works. In this case the backstamp does not include the partnership initials, so it is necessary to go by the pattern number. The 3/ prefix means that it is a Broad Street Works pattern.

Photos © Kjell Persson 2020

 

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Pattern 3/1008

The pattern description book entry for 3/1008 reads:
'Table Clarn EW. Clarn Sh Covd pieces. Dessert Clar EW. flowing blue print. Blued L[ight] green, white edge. New Desst Pattn [outline drawing of reserve] pannels & dark ground, light green in border & centre, gilt & burnishd, O Orange line at edge.'
The name 'New Dessert' appears to relate only to the border. I have not been able to trace any other name for the border or the centre print.

The square dessert dish is 274mm long and 252mm wide. Earthenware.

Pattern 3/1008 square dessert dish front

Pattern 3/1008 square dessert dish back

Pattern 3/1008 square dessert dish marks

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 3/1307

The pattern description book entry for 3/1307 reads:
'Dessert Clarn EW. Mulberry print, dk blue on biscuit, white edge. As 1211 but not gilt.'
The entry for 3/1211 states: 'Dotted leaf border and plant Centre in mulberry ... dk blue'd & flown, Centre enald'. Pattern 198 names the centre print as 'Dog Rose'.

The leaf dessert dish is 284mm long and 207mm wide. Earthenware.

Pattern 3/1307 leaf dessert dish front

Pattern 3/1307 leaf dessert dish back

Pattern 3/1307 leaf dessert dish marks

3/307 does not exist as a pattern number, and the pattern matches the entry for 3/1307. The '1' has been erased at some point. It is important not to take for granted the accuracy of everything you read on the back of a piece of ceramic.
The crown, without the ribbon inscribed 'Stone China', means this is a standard earthenware body.

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 3/1321

The pattern description book entry for 3/1321 reads:
'Table Prussn Sh, Prussn Cov' pcs. Dessert Clarn EW. Mulberry print, nothing on biscuit, brown edge. As 1145 - but not gilt and E W in place of W[hite] Stone.'
The entry for 3/1145 adds little, but the print is referred to elsewhere as 'Chinese Birds'.

The square dessert dish is 275mm long and 250mm wide. Earthenware.

Pattern 3/1321 square dessert dish front

Pattern 3/1321 square dessert dish back

Pattern 3/1321 square dessert dish marks

The oval dessert dish is 293mm long and 234mm wide. Earthenware.

Pattern 3/1321 oval dessert dish front

Pattern 3/1321 oval dessert dish back

Pattern 3/1321 oval dessert dish marks

This fake Chinese seal mark only appears to be associated with this print.

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 1361

This is an example of a reissue by Ashworth's of an earlier Francis Morley pattern. The 3/ has been dropped from the number as was the practice during the Ashworth period.

The pattern description book entry for [3/]1361 reads:
'Table Clarn W[hite] Stone Impl. Covd pcs. Print: nothing. On biscuit: dk blue light green & buff. Edge: gold. Pencild Pattn Mazerine [sic] blue, at edge of plate. 4 flowers in border Shaded in green u[nder] glaze. border & centre traced & shaded in Colours rich gilt & burnishd.'

The 7 inch muffin is 172mm in diameter. White Stone.

Pattern 1361 muffin front

Pattern 1361 muffin back

Pattern 1361 muffin marks

It appears that some of the pattern number applied by the painter has been lost in the firing and the gilder has corrected it.
The mark is the standard Morley Royal Arms mark that was used until Ashworth began to use their own marks.
The four line impressed mark: "ASHWORTH / REAL / IRONSTONE / CHINA" dates the plate to after 1860.

Photos © Bonnie Jean Seiwell ~ Lady in Decadence 2020

 

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Pattern 3/1733

The pattern description book entry for 3/1733 reads:
'As 1712 but not gilt finish'd in O[paque] Orange exactly as gilt.'
The entry for 3/1712 reads:
'Dessert Clarn Sh EW. Printed in Mulberry. Dk blue on biscuit. brown edge. The 323 print but printed in Mulberry dk blue'd & flown enal'd & gilt Slight & burnish'd. brown edge.'
The entry for 323 gives the print name as 'Grecian Vase & Ewer'.

The dessert plate or twiffler is 233mm in diameter. Earthenware. Some oxidation of green enamels.

Pattern 3/1733 dessert plate front

Pattern 3/1733 dessert plate back

Pattern 3/1733 dessert plate marks

The mark without the words "IRONSTONE CHINA" means this is on a standard earthenware body.

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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