Bell Works, Church Works, and Broad Street Works
'Albion' Table Shape

The 'Albion' shape would appear to have been introduced first to the Church Works to use with the "Albion" table pattern, probably as early as 1831. The shape was then exported to both the Bell Works, and to the Broad Street Works, and used extensively at both. It is not difficult to distinguish the wares of the three factories. The Bell Works only issued basic printed wares with the intials "WR" on the back stamp. The Broad Street Works mainly used the shape for stone wares, using a slightly different foot. Problems are, however, caused by the habit of the three factories borrowing earthenware blanks from each other when stocks ran low. Thus Church Works impressed marks can occur on Bell Works and Broad Street Works patterns, causing no end of confusion.

 

Bell Works

William Ridgway

"Grecian" blue

"Grecian" brown

"Oriental" blue

"Oriental" black

"Persian"

 

Church Works and Cobden Works

William Ridgway & Co.

"Flosculous" green on white

"Tyrolean" blue

"Tyrolean" puce

Pattern 580

William Ridgway, Son, & Co.

"Apple-Blossom"

"Humphrey's Clock"

Pattern 1871

 

Broad Street Works

Ridgway, Morley, Wear, & Co.

"Japan Flowers" blue

"Japan Flowers" brown

"Caledonian" pink

"Caledonian No. 1"

"Caledonian" green for Egyptian Transit Administration

Pattern 156

Pattern 188

Pattern 190

Pattern 207

Pattern 216

Pattern 253

Pattern 266

Pattern 279

 

Bell Works Patterns

 

"Grecian" blue

The covered vegetable dish is 303mm long, 248mm wide, and 151mm tall. Earthenware with handles sprigged on in blue coloured earthenware.

Grecian covered vegetable dish top

Grecian covered vegetable dish lid knob top

Grecian covered vegetable dish lid knob side

Grecian covered vegetable dish lid underside

Grecian covered vegetable dish body top

Grecian covered vegetable dish handle

Grecian covered vegetable dish side

Grecian covered vegetable dish end

Grecian covered vegetable dish base

Grecian covered vegetable dish backstamp

Photos © Angela Grant 2020

The dinner plate is 264mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Grecian dinner plate front

Grecian dinner plate back

Grecian dinner plate backstamp

The use of the beehive mark, as well as the simple "WR", distinguishes this Bell Works pattern from the urn & anchor mark used at the Church Works.

A service of this pattern in green has been drawn to my attention bearing the words "RIDGWAYS / ENGLAND" below the mark. This is not a product of the Bell Works, but a reissue by the Bedford Works firm after 1891. How the Bedford Works obtained the printing plates and moulds is not certain, but it has to be assumed they were purchased at the sale of the contents of the Bell Works in May 1855 after William Ridgway's second bankruptcy in 1854.

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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"Grecian" brown

The dinner plate is 260mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Grecian dinner plate front

Grecian dinner plate front detail

Grecian dinner plate back

Grecian dinner plate backstamp

Photos © Bonnie Jean Seiwell ~ Lady in Decadence 2020

 

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"Oriental" blue

The dessert plate or twiffler is 234mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Oriental dessert plate front

Oriental dessert plate back

Oriental dessert plate backstamp

The same beehive mark as on the "Grecian" pattern, denoting a Bell Works product.

A service of this pattern has been drawn to my attention bearing the word "RIDGWAYS" above the mark, and the word "ENGLAND" below the mark. This is not a product of the Bell Works, but a reissue by the Bedford Works firm after 1891. How the Bedford Works obtained the printing plates and moulds is not certain, but it has to be assumed they were purchased at the sale of the contents of the Bell Works in May 1855 after William Ridgway's second bankruptcy in 1854.

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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"Oriental" black

The covered vegetable dish is 292mm long, 254mm wide, and 153mm tall. Earthenware.

Oriental covered vegetable dish top

Oriental covered vegetable dish side

Oriental covered vegetable dish top minus cover

Oriental covered vegetable dish base

Oriental covered vegetable dish backstamp

It would appear that at some point the form of the covered pieces was changed from the shape listed under "Grecian" above to the shape listed here.

Photos © Kenneth H. Carleton 2020

 

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"Persian"

The meat dish is 43cm long and 35cm broad. Earthenware.

Persian meat dish front

Persian meat dish back

Persian meat dish backstamp

Photos © Calin Crumov 2019

The dessert plate or twiffler is 233mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Persian dessert plate front

Persian dessert plate back

Persian dessert plate backstamp

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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Church Works and Cobden Works Patterns

 

"Flosculous" green on white

The large meat dish is 428mm long and 345mm wide. Earthenware.

Flosculous meat dish front

Flosculous meat dish back

Flosculous meat dish backstamp

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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"Tyrolean" blue

The plate. Earthenware.

Tyrolean plate front

Tyrolean plate backstamp

Photos © Tommy Cheatham 2019

 

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"Tyrolean" puce

The dinner plate is 265mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Tyrolean dinner plate front

Tyrolean dinner plate back

Tyrolean dinner plate backstamp

Photos © Tommy Cheatham 2019

 

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"Apple-Blossom"

The dinner plate is 264mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Apple Blossom dinner plate front

Apple Blossom dinner plate back

Apple Blossom dinner plate back marks

The impressed mark reads: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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"Humphrey's Clock"

The name refers to Master Humphrey's Clock, an illustrated magazine written and edited by Charles Dickens. Dickens planned initially to use the magazine for short stories, but it ended up as the vehicle for the issue of two novels by instalment, The Old Curiosity Shop and Barnaby Rudge. The views on the Ridgway pattern come from The Old Curiosity Shop.

The pie dish is 291mm long, 226mm wide, and 53mm deep. Earthenware.

Humphrey's Clock pie dish top

Humphrey's Clock pie dish top detail

The print shows Little Nell and her grandfather being given a lift on a canal boat whilst the crew enjoy some liquid refreshment. Although it is not named in the story, the Warwick & Birmingham Canal is thought to be the waterway intended.

Humphrey's Clock pie dish side

Humphrey's Clock pie dish base

Humphrey's Clock pie dish marks

The impressed mark reads: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

 

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Pattern 580

As I have no plates of Pattern 580 it is difficult to be sure that this tureen belongs here, but its shape does bear a relationship to that of the "Oriental" black covered vegetable dish above, so I have included it here. If anyone can provide photos of a Pattern 580 plate I would be delighted to see them.

The covered tureen and stand is 373mm long, 283mm wide, and 293mm tall overall.

Pattern 580 tureen and stand top

Pattern 580 tureen cover underside

Pattern 580 tureen and stand top minus cover

Pattern 580 tureen and stand side

Pattern 580 tureen and stand end

Pattern 580 tureen base

Pattern 580 tureen base marks

Pattern 580 tureen stand top

Pattern 580 tureen stand base

Pattern 580 tureen stand marks

Photos © Angela Grant 2020

 

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Pattern 1871

The small muffin is 151mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Pattern 1871 muffin front

Pattern 1871 muffin back

Pattern 1871 muffin back marks

The impressed mark reads: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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Broad Street Works Patterns

All entries from the factory pattern description books are reproduced courtesy of The Wedgwood Museum Trust.

 

"Japan Flowers"

This pattern should not be confused with the John & William Ridgway "Japan Flowers" pattern, which is totally different.

The sauce tureen stand is 170mm long and 164mm wide. Earthenware.

Japan Flowers sauce tureen stand front

Japan Flowers sauce tureen stand back

Japan Flowers sauce tureen stand marks

Photos © Angela Grant 2019

The soup plate is 260mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Japan Flowers soup plate front

Japan Flowers soup plate back

Japan Flowers soup plate backstamp

Photos © Tommy Cheatham 2019

The dessert plate or twiffler is 237mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Japan Flowers dessert plate front

Japan Flowers dessert plate back

Japan Flowers dessert plate marks

The impressed mark reads: "OPAQUE / GRANITE / CHINA / W. R. & Co".

This shows how confusing matters can get when the factories exchanged earthenware blanks. Here you have a blank made at the Church Works being used on a Broad Street Works pattern. Here it is clear what has happened as the printed mark has the initials of the decorating partnership. When, however, the printed mark is anonymous, as is often the case, pieces can easily be misattributed.

The muffin is 203mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Japan Flowers muffin front

Japan Flowers muffin back

Japan Flowers muffin backstamp

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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"Japan Flowers" brown

The warming plate is 10.25 inches in diameter, and 11 inches across the filler. The height is 2 inches and the diameter of the foot 6.25 inches. Earthenware.

Japan Flowers warming plate front

Japan Flowers warming plate back

Japan Flowers warming plate backstamp

Photos © Tommy Cheatham 2019

 

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"Caledonian" pink

The soup plate is 265mm in diameter. Earthenware.

Caledonian soup plate front

Caledonian soup plate back

Caledonian soup plate backstamp

Photos © Tommy Cheatham 2019

 

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"Caledonian No. 1"

There is no description in the surviving books, only a black print in the second pattern book showing the green decoration. That shows 'Wellington' shape, so presumably they used that shape for dessert services and 'Albion' for table services.

The muffin is 7.75 inches in diameter. Earthenware.

Caledonian No. 1 muffin front

Caledonian No. 1 muffin back

Caledonian No. 1 muffin marks

Note the "1" in green below the backstamp.

Photos © Tommy Cheatham 2019

 

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"Caledonian" green for Egyptian Transit Administration

The dinner plate is 260mm in diameter. Ironstone.

Caledonian ETA dinner plate front

Caledonian ETA dinner plate front detail

Caledonian ETA dinner plate back

Caledonian ETA dinner plate marks

I would normally expect the "Caledonian" pattern to be late 1830s and on earthenware, not ironstone. This plate has a registration diamond for 21 July 1846, Parcel 1. The "REAL / IRONSTONE / CHINA" impressed mark dates from the second half of the 1850s. So we have something of a puzzle.
The Egyptian Transit Administration appears to have been the governing body for the Egyptian Railways, which was mostly British built and British run. The pattern, being primarily geometrical, would have been acceptable to their Islamic hosts. Green also has strong Islamic connections, as in the Quran it is associated with paradise. It was also the dynastic colour of the Fatimid Caliphate, which was based in Egypt, and is one of the four Pan-Arab colours (green, black, white, red).

Photos © Leonidas Panousakis 2020

 

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Pattern 156

The pattern description book reads:
'Table Albion BS. Printed in P[urple] Brown. Blue on biscuit. White Edge. Hicks 66 Cold Red & Dk Blue rich Gilt - (Scoured'

The dinner plate is 263mm in diameter. Blue Stone.

Pattern 156 dinner plate front

Pattern 156 dinner plate back

Pattern 156 dinner plate backstamp and pattern number

A typical Royal Arms mark from the Hicks & Meigh period. The original "66" has been cut out of the backstamp before being applied. The top of the curve of the first "6" can be seen between the "1" and the "5" of the painted pattern number.

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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Pattern 188

The pattern description book reads:
'Table Albion BS. Toilet Florence. Printed in S[tone] Brown. Blue & Buff on biscuit. Lustre Edge. Peruvian Enamelld Dk Blued Gilt & Scored.'

The dessert plate or twiffler is 233mm in diameter. Blue Stone.

Pattern 188 dessert plate front

Pattern 188 dessert plate back

Pattern 188 dessert plate backstamp

A typical Crown and Ribbon mark from the early part of the Ridgway, Morley, Wear, & Co. period.

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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Pattern 190

The pattern description book reads:
'Table Albion. Printed in S[tone] Brown. Nothing on biscuit. Lustre Edge. Peruvian Border. Rock Centre. End only. No Gold.'

The meat plate is 246mm long and 196mm wide. Blue Stone.

Pattern 190 meat dish front

Pattern 190 meat dish back

Pattern 190 meat dish backstamp and pattern number

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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Pattern 207

The pattern description book reads:
'Table Albion BS. Dessert Milan. Toilet Florence. Printed in S[tone] Br[ow]n. Nothing on biscuit. Lustre Edge. Peruvian Pattn End only. No Gold or Dk Blue.'

For an example of a "Hot Water Plate" in this pattern, see the 'Pekin' shape page.

The dinner plate is 261mm in diameter. Blue Stone.

Pattern 207 dinner plate front

Pattern 207 dinner plate back

Pattern 207 dinner plate backstamp and pattern number

The soup plate is 260mm in diameter. Blue Stone.

Pattern 207 soup plate front

Pattern 207 soup plate back

Pattern 207 soup plate backstamp and pattern number

This is the only instance I have come across where there are two sizes of soup plate associated with the same pattern.

The small soup plate is 231mm in diameter. Blue Stone.

Pattern 207 small soup plate front

Pattern 207 small soup plate back

Pattern 207 small soup plate backstamp and pattern number

The dessert plate or twiffler is 231mm in diameter. Blue Stone.

Pattern 207 dessert plate front

Pattern 207 dessert plate back

Pattern 207 dessert plate backstamp and pattern number

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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Pattern 216

The pattern number has worn off of this rather battered plate, but it fits the description of Pattern 216 exactly.

The pattern description book reads:
'Table Albion BS. Printed in Blue. Blue on biscuit. Same exact as 211 Without Gold.'
Pattern 211 gives the print name as 'Peruvian'.

The dessert plate or twiffler is 229mm in diameter. Blue Stone.

Pattern 216 dessert plate front

Pattern 216 dessert plate back

Pattern 216 dessert plate backstamp

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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Pattern 253

The pattern description book reads:
'Table Albion BS. Printed in S[tone] Brown. Nothing on biscuit. Lustre Edge. Dk bead at edge 3 Large Bundles fancy flowers & Centre. Enamelld. No Gold.'
Elsewhere in the books this print is referred to by the name 'Nepaulese'.

The dinner plate is 263mm in diameter. Blue Stone.

Pattern 253 dinner plate front

Pattern 253 dinner plate back

Pattern 253 dinner plate backstamp and pattern number

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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Pattern 266

The pattern description book reads:
'Table Albion BS. Printed in P[urple] Brown. Dk Blue &c on biscuit. Brown Edge. Dragon border outline 2 Vases chinese flower centre. Red green & Blue Japanned not gilt.'

The dessert plate or twiffler is 233mm in diameter. Blue Stone.

Pattern 266 dessert plate front

Pattern 266 dessert plate back

Pattern 266 dessert plate backstamp and pattern number

There are several versions of this form of Royal Arms mark used both at the Broad Street Works and at the Church Works. It is therefore important to take care in assigning a piece to either factory. In this case the heavy grey stoneware body marks it as a Broad Street works piece. See also below.

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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Pattern 279

The pattern description book reads:
'Table Albion WS. Printed in P[urple] Brown. Nothing on biscuit. Brown Edge. Nankin Jar outline Enamelled not Gilt.'

The meat dish is 365mm long and 298mm wide. White Stone.

Pattern 279 meat dish front

There is some wear damage to the enamels in the centre. This is also true of the dinner plate below, but to a lesser degree.

Pattern 279 meat dish back

Pattern 279 meat dish marks

Pattern 279 meat dish impressed marks

The impressed mark indicates this is an Ashworth reissue. The colours are, however, true to the pattern book, and it made sense to use it when no original meat dish is available. The closeness to the pattern book implies an early reissue, possibly by Morley & Ashworth.

Photos © Tara Burkholder Saunders 2020

The dinner plate is 269mm in diameter. White Stone.

Pattern 279 dinner plate front

Pattern 279 dinner plate back

Pattern 279 dinner plate backstamp and pattern number

There are several versions of this form of Royal Arms mark used both at the Broad Street Works and at the Church Works. It is therefore important to take care in assigning a piece to either factory. In this case the heavy grey stoneware body marks it as a Broad Street works piece.

Another version of the same mark on another Broad Street Works piece may be seen here.

Photos © Angela Grant 2018

 

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